Football language – penalties

[Full match highlights]

It’s not over yet: after an exciting, a glorious 2nd half, an energetic start to extra time (1) and strange things happening in extra time (2)  we have now come to the epilogue of a memorable match: penalties.


Penalties is when one player shines above all…

The goalkeeper

1. The keeper is unique among players in that he is allowed to touch the ball with his hands to prevent the other team from scoring.

2. To avoid confusion, he wears a differently coloured kit.

3. A saved ball is a goalie‘s most prized possession.


In ToB, the keeper’s position is taken by the genitive case at the very bottom of the pentagram.


In the English language, the tell-tale sign of the genitive is almost always one of two tiny words associated with the noun:  of  or  ‘s.

The genitive case

In a way similar to the goalkeeper, the genitive has features that make it unique:

1. Nouns that fall within the genitive case are unique because they participate in the action always in relation to other nouns or adjectives (rather than to the verb).  

2. To make this relationship clear, a dotted line is used to connect the related words (see examples in the picture above).   

3. The genitive is primarily used to indicate “possession”, as in the examples above (which is why you find it deep in the domain of origin).  However, it may be also used to indicate “partition”, as in “the last of the players”.

And this is it: grammar and ToB in a football match.

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